Intro to this video must be similar to this site http://www.biovere.com/cart/a3d.php or if possible ganito talaga!
ALL OF THE TEXT MUST BE NARRATED.
FOLLOW THE FORMAT OF THE IRRI WEBSITE

What Is This Module About?
NOTE: while narrating, flash a powerpoint presentation
NOTE: flash only the questions with animation

Have you ever wondered what it would be like not being able to breathe? Not
being able to smell the sweet-smelling flowers in your garden or your mom’s
delicious cooking? Can a person stay alive without breathing?

Humans, like other animals, are able to breathe because of a special system that
allows oxygen to be taken into the body. This is called the respiratory system. The
respiratory system also releases carbon dioxide. It never stops working even when a
person is asleep.

This module will tell you all about the respiratory system. You will discover the
parts that make up this system and their functions. You will also learn how to take
proper care of your respiratory system and the diseases that can affect it.
This module is composed of four lessons:

Lesson 1 — How the Respiratory System Works
Lesson 2 — The Parts of The Respiratory System
Lesson 3 — Diseases That Can Affect the Respiratory System
Lesson 4 — Taking Care of the Respiratory System

*NOTE:Narrate each lesson
NOTE: Highlight each lesson and can be click to go to the page where it is

What Will You Learn From This Module?
NOTE: animate each bullet and flash it one at a time

After studying this module, you should be able to:
♦ describe the functions of the human respiratory system;
♦ identify the parts that make up the human respiratory system;
♦ describe how the human respiratory system works;
♦ name diseases that can affect the human respiratory system;
♦ identify recent inventions that enable defective parts of the respiratory
system to function normally; and
♦ cite ways of taking care of the human respiratory system.


Let’s See What You Already Know
*NOTE: use quizstar4teachers or any similar program and make a back-up in case there's no internet connection
Before you proceed on studying this module, let’s find out what you already know
about the topics to be discussed. Write your answers in the blanks.
1. Name the function of the respiratory system.
_
2. State three parts of the respiratory system.
a.
b.

c.
3. Give three diseases that can affect the respiratory system.
a.

b.
c.

4. Cite two ways of taking care of the respiratory system.
a.
b.


NOTE: same as quizstar the answer key is viewed after the test if it is taken on-line

Well, how was it? Do you think you fared well? Compare your answers with those
in the Answer Key.

If all your answers are correct, very good! This shows that you already know
much about the topics in this module. You may still study the module to review what
you already know. Who knows, you might learn some more new things.
If you got a low score, don’t feel bad. This module is for you and it will help you
understand some important concepts that you can apply in your daily life. If you study
this module carefully, you will learn the answers to all the items in the test and a lot
more! Are you ready?
You may go now to the next page to begin Lesson 1.


LESSON 1

How the Respiratory System Works
All animals breathe in oxygen. Oxygen is needed by the body in order to function
properly.
However, not all animals breathe the way humans do. Fishes, for example, use
gills instead of noses since they live underwater.

*NOTE: Refer to the module and show colorful illustration with animation and labels

The special structures that allow oxygen to be used by the cells of the body make
up the respiratory system. To respire means to inhale and exhale air.

This lesson will tell you about the many functions of the respiratory system. Are
you ready to know more about this wonderful system in your body?

Let’s Think About This
Do you know why people breathe? Why does your respiratory system work
tirelessly to bring oxygen into your body? Why is breathing important?
*NOTE: Use sample interactive simulation Breathing & Respiration at www.skoool.ie
Reflect on this before proceeding to the next part of the module.

Let’s Learn
The respiratory system is made up of organs through which air flows during
pulmonary ventilation. What most of us call breathing, doctors call pulmonary
ventilation. This term simply means that air is drawn into the body through several
structures of the respiratory system. These are the same structures that carbon
dioxide would need to pass through on its way out of the body.
The term respiration, from the word “respire” refers to the act of the
respiratory system which allows respiration to occur.
Respiration takes place as soon as oxygen enters the body. Oxygen helps release
the energy contained in food for use by cells in the body. In the process, a by-product
or waste called carbon dioxide is produced. Carbon dioxide is released from the
body because it can harm the cells.

Let’s Think About This
Plants produce food through a process called photosynthesis. Oxygen is then
released into the air as a product of this process.
People take in oxygen into their bodies and release carbon dioxide in a process
called respiration. The organisms in an environment participate in a mutually
beneficial relationship called the carbon dioxide cycle.
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen

The Carbon Dioxide Cycle



NOTE: Sample picture: ****//http://www.windows.ucar.edu/cgi-bin/tour_def/earth/Water/co2_cycle.html//**** or you can put a better picture relating to the Carbon Dioxide Cycle.
*pls. Put some animation in the drawing or any similar interactive simulation

Let’s Think About This
How can you tell if a person is alive? The two observable functions that indicate
life are the beating of the heart and the ability to breathe. When these functions stop,
so does life. Do you see now how important breathing is for humans?


Let’s See What You Have Learned
*Convert this to a quizstar form or any similar program
Fill in the blanks with the correct word or words.
1. _ is the gas needed by the cells of the body.
2. The respiratory system is important for the process of
_.
3. _ is the gas expelled from the body.
4. The word respiration means
_.
5. Pulmonary ventilation refers to the process of _.

After answering this exercise, check your answers with the Answer Key on page
28. If your score is 5, well done! You learned a lot from this lesson. You may proceed
to the next lesson. If your score is 4 or below, it’s okay. But you need to study this
lesson again before proceeding to the next.

Let’s Remember
The respiratory system is important for life and life functions, because it
– helps oxygen enter your body and helps carbon dioxide
come out; and
*
enables respiration to occur.
*



LESSON 2

The Parts of the Respiratory System
NOTE: while narrating flash a movie presentation sort of a flash back review.
In Lesson 1, you learned what the respiratory system is. It is a group of structures
that allow oxygen to enter the body and carbon dioxide to come out. The respiratory
system helps keep you alive. But how does it work? To understand how the respiratory
system is able to carry out its function, you need to learn the structures of which it is
made up.

In this lesson, you will learn about the parts of the respiratory system. You will
also know how these structures work together to bring oxygen to the cells of the body
in the process called respiration.

Let’s Try This
*NOTE: While narrating, show interactive simulation doing this.
Sit comfortably on a chair. Breathe in and out. Inhale deeply and exhale very
slowly. As you do so, close your eyes and imagine the structures the air is passing
through. Where are these structures located?


Let’s Study And Analyze
The respiratory system is composed of organs through which air that contains
oxygen flows through during pulmonary ventilation. These organs include the nasal
cavity (or nose), pharynx (or throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs.
Study the structures of the respiratory system in the figure below.
*NOTE: Refer to the module and have it similar to this sample //**www.medmovie.com/cochlear**//implant

7
*NOTE: Refer to the module and have it similar to this sample **//www.medmovie.com/cochlear//**implant
NOTE: As you click the bold word a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard
The respiratory system is a group of organs that supply oxygen needed by the
cells of the body. The organs are arranged in such a way that the maximum amount of
air is supplied to the body and is utilized well. The first of these organs, where air
passes, is the nose.
The nose is the first station where air enters. The nose has two external openings
called the nostrils. The nostrils are also called external nares. The nose is not just a
simple passageway. It acts like an airconditioning system that filters, humidifies and
warms air as it passes through.
The nose has hairs which are called vibrissae, that filter air. These hairs make
sure that dust and other particles from the air are trapped so that they cannot enter the
interior of the respiratory system. Dust and other small particles in the air might be
harmful to the more delicate organs of the body.
The nose also humidifies air. This means that it provides some moisture to the air
because dry air is bad for the body. It irritates the linings of the internal organs of the
respiratory system. You can feel this when you stay inside an airconditioned room for
a long time and start to feel your nose is drying up.
The nose also warms the air entering the body. The ideal temperature of air needs
to be maintained to prevent the formation of ice crystals inside the organs of the
respiratory system when you stay in a very cold environment. This also means that the
nose preserves moisture. When dry air enters the nose, the air is first moistened by
the mucus membranes that line the nose. In this sense, the wetness of the membranes
of the other organs of the respiratory system is maintained.

8
Let’s Think About This
*NOTE: While narrating, show animated figure/picture or any interactive related to this.
Have you ever had a cold? A cold is caused by a virus, a very small but harmful
particle that causes the nose to produce a lot of mucus. Mucus is the syrupy fluid that
comes out of your nose. When this fluid accumulates, the nerve endings of the nose
used for smelling are covered up. What do you think happens to your sense of smell
when you have colds?

The Pharynx
*NOTE: have it similar to this sample
**//www.medmovie.com/cochlear//**implant with audio
NOTE: As you click each part of the pharynx a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard

The pharynx is commonly known as the throat. It is the second area where air
passes through as it goes inside the body. The pharynx technically belongs to both the
digestive and the respiratory systems because food also passes through this area. How
is food prevented from going to the respiratory system?

The pharynx divides into two distinct structures. The trachea brings air to the
respiratory system while the esophagus brings food to the digestive system. Food is
prevented from entering the airway because of the presence of a special structure
called the epiglottis which automatically closes when one swallows. Swallowing is
accomplished only when the mouth is closed.
*NOTE: Refer to the module.Show illustration with the same format as picture found in the www.guidant.com
NOTE- when the text is highlighted the part of the figure is also highlighted and there are buttons below the figure to see it closer/ see the body (refer to the site
//**www.guidant.com/heartandlungs**//)
NOTE: As you click each part of the pharynx a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard
9
Let’s Try This
*NOTE: While narrating, show an interactive simulation doing this.
Try swallowing with your mouth open. Were you able to do it? Swallowing with
the mouth open is impossible to do. This is because the mouth must first be closed to
allow the epiglottis to close the airway. In this manner, food goes to the esophagus and
not the trachea. This is an amazing function, because if large particles like food enter
your respiratory system, you could die!

The Larynx
*NOTE: have it similar to this sample **//www.medmovie.com/cochlear//**implant with audio
NOTE: As you click each part of the larynx a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard
The larynx or voice box is atop the trachea. It is a rigid box of cartilage, similar
to the soft white bones of chicken. The larynx has the capability to contract. In adult
males, the area of the larynx is marked by a bump in the throat called the Adam’s
apple.

When air passes from the lungs through the larynx, the membranes of the voice
box, which are called vocal cords, vibrate. This is what produces speech. Hold your
throat as you speak and feel the vibrations produced by your vocal cords.
To understand how the vocal cords work, try pushing out air through closed lips.
You would notice that your lips would flap or vibrate when air is forced out from the
respiratory system. This is how vocal sounds are produced.

The Trachea
*NOTE: have it similar to this sample **//www.medmovie.com/cochlear//**implant
NOTE: As you click each part of the trachea a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard
If you recall, you found out that the pharynx opens out into two structures, the
esophagus and the trachea. Food and liquids force open the usually compressed
esophagus during swallowing. Between swallows, the esophagus closes. The trachea,
on the other hand, never closes because air is needed by the body. Air is never pushed
into this tube, it is sucked in by the action of your lungs.
The trachea is kept open because it is surrounded by C-shaped rings of cartilage.
A cartilage is like a very soft bone. Hold your earlobes. Your earlobes are made of
cartilage. The trachea is kept open by cartilage, hence, everything that you breathe in
will reach the other parts of your respiratory system. Be careful what you inhale! It
may cause damage to the respiratory system.
10
*NOTE: Show illustration with the same format as picture found in the **www.guidant.com**
NOTE- when the text is highlighted the part of the figure is also highlighted and there are buttons below the figure to see it closer/ see the body (refer to the site //**www.guidant.com/heartandlungs**//) with audio
The figure on the left shows you the Cshaped
series of cartilages that surround the
trachea. These keep your trachea always
open.
Before you proceed to the next topic,
study again the structure of the respiratory
system below.
*NOTE: Refer to the module and have it similar to this sample www.medmovie.com/cochlear//implant// with audio

The Bronchi and Bronchioles
*NOTE: have it similar to this sample **//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
NOTE: with buttons below emphasizing the left or right bronchus
The trachea extends from the larynx to just above the level of the heart where it
separates into two structures, the left and right
bronchi. The right bronchus goes
toward the right lung and the
left bronchus goes toward the left lung. Inside the lungs,
the bronchi again divide into smaller branches called the
bronchioles. In this way, the
respiratory system is like a tree that has a main trunk and then divides into branches,
on which the leaves of the tree are found. Interestingly, the passage of the respiratory
system, where air travels, is called the
tracheobronchial tree.
11

The Lungs
**NOTE: Refer to the module and have it similar to this sample www.medmovie.com/cochlearimplant to show the parts of the lungs.
NOTE: As you click each part of the Lungs a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard
As a tree divides into more and more branches, you can not see the branches
anymore, because they are hidden among the leaves of the tree. In the human body, the
foliage or the leaves of the tracheobronchial tree are referred to as the lungs. Like
the leaves of a tree, the lungs contain the sites of gas exchange.
The lungs are two masses of sponge-like tissue on the left and right sides of the
heart inside the chest. The ribcage of the chest protects the lungs and the heart.
Inside the lungs, the bronchioles divide into the respiratory bronchioles, which
divide further into alveolar ducts. These ducts feed into the air chambers of the
lungs, which are called the alveolar sacs.
The air that enters the respiratory system, ultimately reaches the alveolar sacs.
Here, oxygen is delivered for use by the body. Gas exchanges between the lungs and
the blood occur in the alveolar sac, which resembles a bunch of tiny grapes or a
cluster of bubbles. The sac is made up of alveoli. Gas transfer takes place in the walls
of each alveolus. The alveolus has a very thin lining that allows oxygen to mix with the
blood entering the lungs. This oxygenated blood is then delivered to the cells of the
body by the circulatory system.

Let’s Think About This
The lungs contain about 300 million alveoli. If you combine their surface areas,
the alveoli would cover 70 square meters or 750 square feet. That’s roughly the size
of 2 tennis courts! The process of gas exchange must really be important for the body
to provide a very big surface area just for that purpose. Without gas exchange, life
would not be possible!
*NOTE: show colorful picture with animated labels or animated figure/picture or any interactive related to this.
12

Let’s Learn
NOTE: Refer to the figurein the module and make a similar interactive video like in **//www.medmovie.com/cochlear//**implant


The Process of Gas Exchange
Gases are exchanged in the alveoli. The oxygen from the air is exchanged for the
carbon dioxide from the blood. Oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide enters
the alveoli from where it is ultimately exhaled into the environment.
The ultimate task of the respiratory system is to allow respiration to occur.
Respiration is not just breathing. In the human body, respiration is achieved in three
levels:
1. External respiration — takes place when oxygen from the air moves
through the alveoli toward the blood and carbon dioxide passes from the
blood toward the alveoli. This is also known as gas exchange.
2. Internal respiration — refers to the movement of the blood from the
circulatory system toward the cells and tissues of the body.
3. Cellular respiration — refers to the use of oxygen inside the cells to
obtain energy from food.

Without the respiratory system, air that contains oxygen cannot enter the body;
gas exchange will not occur and the cells cannot produce energy for the body to use.
Life would not be possible without the tireless respiratory system working to supply
life-giving oxygen to the body.
13

Let’s See What You Have Learned
*NOTE:
Use memory game similar to **//http://www.quia.com/cc/54523.html//**. Match the question to the answers located at page 29 of the module.

Memory Game
Direction: Try to uncover matching pairs of cards.
1. is the primary task of the respiratory system.
2. The respiratory system is also called the
tree.
3. _ is needed by the cells of the body to produce energy
from food.
4. The
_ closes to prevent food from getting into the
trachea.
5. The C shaped rings of the trachea are composed of_.
6. Voice is produced through the vibrations of the .
7. The lungs contain the in which gas exchange takes
place.
8. The trachea divides into two .
9. The bronchi divide into
.
10. The exchange of carbon dioxide from the blood with oxygen from the alveoli
is called _respiration.
After answering this exercise, check your answers with the Answer Key found on
page 29. If your score is 7 and above, well done! You now know more about the
respiratory system. You may proceed to the next lesson.
If your score is 6 or below, it’s okay. But you need to study this lesson again
before proceeding to the next.


Let’s Remember
NOTE: while narrating each bullet, have a presentatation for each to make it more interesting
.
♦ The respiratory system is the organ system that allows respiration to occur.
♦ Respiration occurs in three levels: external respiration, internal respiration,
and cellular respiration.
♦ The respiratory system is composed of air passages that ultimately lead to
the lungs where gas exchange takes place.
♦ The first of the air passages is the nose, which filters, warms and humidifies
the air entering the body.
♦ The pharynx opens towards the trachea and the esophagus. Food is prevented
from entering the respiratory system through the closure of the epiglottis.
♦ The trachea is the “trunk” of the tracheobronchial tree. Atop the trachea is
the larynx. It contains the vocal cords that vibrate when air is expired to
produce sound.
♦ The trachea divides into two bronchi, each of which divides into bronchioles.
♦ The branching continues from the bronchi to the respiratory bronchioles to
alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs.
♦ Individual alveoli make up the alveoli sacs. The alveolus is the site of gas
exchange.
♦ Without the respiratory system, life would not be possible.
15


LESSON 3
NOTE: while narrating flash a movie presentation sort of a flash back review.

Diseases that Can Affect the Respiratory System
By this time, you have already learned about the function and parts of the
respiratory system. You have discovered how important it is to your life. The
respiratory system is vulnerable because it allows air into its passages. When air
enters the passages of the respiratory system, it brings with it things that might cause
more harm than good.

*NOTE:
While narrating, show VIDEO presentation to the story below
Find out what happened to a boy named Jose.
Jose’s classmate had a cough and a
runny nose. He had colds too. But Jose
still played with him.
Jose was brought to a hospital after
two days because he found it very
difficult to breathe. The doctor told his
mother that Jose had pneumonia.
Jose was lucky because he was able to recover from his illness. Nevertheless, he
had to miss school for several days. His doctors suspect that he got the bacteria that
causes pneumonia from his classmate.
The following day, Jose woke up with a
fever and cold. He was coughing, too. Because
of this, he was unable to go to school.
He stayed in the hospital for several
days. He was forced to miss school. The
doctors gave him a lot of medicine to make
him feel better. He also had to wear an oxygen
mask for a while.


Let’s Think About This
NOTE: while narrating, show interactive presentation to this.
Imagine that you are Jose. Would you like to stay in a hospital, too? What are the
fun things that you would miss if you got sick? The respiratory system’s work is very
important. To prove this, try holding your breath for as long as you can. How long
were you able to do it?

Let’s Learn
Disorders of the Respiratory System
The disorders of the respiratory system are usually manifested as coughing or
difficulty in breathing. These are the symptoms of a disease. Below are some
conditions and their symptoms.

1. Pneumonia
NOTE: make the illustration similar to this sample
**//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
NOTE: As you click the bold words a correct pronounciation of the word will be heard

Pneumonia is a disease in which the bronchioles and the alveolar sacs
become inflamed due to infection. Bacteria that cause pneumonia are
present even in healthy throats. When the body’s defenses are weakened, the
bacteria multiply and cause damage. They work their way into the lungs and
get stuck in the alveolar sacs, which then get inflamed. Viruses and chemical
irritants can also cause pneumonia.
A person who has pneumonia usually has a fever and cough and has
difficulty breathing. The difficulty in breathing is caused by the excessive
mucus secretion that prevents gas exchange. Pneumonia is cured with
antibiotics that kill the bacteria inside the lungs.
Other areas of the tracheobronchial tree can also suffer from bacterial or viral
infection. The suffix -itis (which means disease or inflammation) is attached to the
name of the affected part to indicate that that part has inflammation and infection.
Hence, you could have pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and bronchiolitis. These
diseases are not as severe as pneumonia, but they can all cause a person to have
difficulty breathing.
17
2. Asthma
*
while narrating, show interactive simulation with sound (gasping for air, breathing, wheezing) or video presentation doing this.
John is 12 years old. He occasionally finds himself gasping for air.
Whenever he breathes, a wheezing sound is heard coming from his chest.
What does John have?
Asthma is a condition characterized by hypersensivity of the lungs. The
passages of the respiratory system are sensitive to allergens, which are
substances that can cause irritation. This sensitiveness of the air passages
serves to protect the respiratory system. However, some people’s
respiratory system are much too sensitive that they often suffer allergic
reaction, manifested as wheezing and difficulty in breathing.
Asthma still has no cure. Drugs are either inhaled or taken to relax the
constricting hyper-reactive airways. But these are just temporary measures.
Asthma attacks usually occur again after a while.

3. Emphysema
*
while narrating, show interactive simulation with sound doing this.
Diana was 14 years old when she started smoking. Her habit got to
the point where she would smoke 2 to 3 packs a day. Recently, she has
found it very difficult to breathe. She can not walk ten steps without
stopping for rest. She also finds it very hard to climb stairs. Her doctor
told her she has emphysema, and that she needs to quit smoking.
18
*
show an illustration of a smoker's lungs
Smoking is bad for the respiratory system. It destroys the delicate
structures of the lungs and the tracheobronchial tree. It also deposits
harmful substances inside the lungs. A person who smokes is 4 to 25 times
more likely to develop emphysema than nonsmokers. Smoking cut short a
person’s life span.

*
Show illustration
Diana was diagnosed to have emphysema. Emphysema is characterized
by abnormal permanent enlargements of the alveoli, caused by the
destruction of the alveolar walls. This destruction is usually due to the
chemical irritants found in tobacco smoke. There is no cure for emphysema.
The alveolar walls cannot be repaired, hence smoking must be stopped to
prevent further damage.

4. Lung Cancer
*
while narrating, show interactive simulation with sound doing this.
Buboy started smoking 12 years ago. He smokes two packs a day.
For two years, he has had severe coughing episodes especially in the
morning. The cough has worsened, but he still continued smoking. Later
on, he began to have chest pains and difficulty in breathing. He consulted
a physician, who said that he has lung cancer. Buboy felt devastated. He
knows that cancer can kill. He wished he never started smoking at all but
it’s all too late.
*Show illustration of a respiratory system destroyed by smoking NOTE: make the illustration similar to this sample
**//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
Smoking destroys the respiratory system, since harmful substances like
tar and nicotine from cigarettes are deposited in the lungs. This affects the
natural capacity of the lung to rid themselves of waste materials, hence more
of these wastes accumulate. When the damage from chemicals becomes too
much, the bronchial cells become malignant. This causes lung cancer, a
fatal condition.
Lung cancer can be prevented by quitting tobacco smoking. Even with
active medical treatment, people with lung cancer usually die within a few
years after the onset of the disease.

5. Rhinitis
*while narrating, show interactive simulation with sound doing this.
Ronald usually wakes up with a runny nose. He finds it difficult to
breathe because of too much mucus secretion inside his nose. His mucus
membranes are often inflamed. He has had this condition for years.
Because of his sickness, he is often late or absent from work. Medicines
given to him by his doctors work only for some time. What does Ronald
have?

*
Show illustration to this situation
Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal cavity. In the example, Ronald
has allergic rhinitis. Like asthma, rhinitis is an allergic reaction to dust and
pollutants. This allergic reaction causes the mucus membranes of the nose
to secrete too much fluid. Allergic rhinitis is very difficult to treat because
it is a recurring condition. The best way to control it is to avoid the
substances that can cause allergic reactions.

6. Tuberculosis
*
while narrating, show interactive simulation with sound doing this
Mr. Cruz is 50 years old. For the past year, he has noticed himself
losing much weight; coughing constantly; suffering from fever in the
afternoons or evenings and sweating at night. One day, he noticed that
there was blood where he spat on the ground. He consulted a doctor, who
told him he has pulmonary tuberculosis.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a common infection of the lungs that
occurs especially among people living in developing countries. It is caused
by bacteria called
Mycobacterium tuberculosis which are transmitted-
between persons in crowded places.
*Show illustration of a lungs with PTB NOTE: make the illustration similar to this sample
**//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
The bacteria stay inside the lungs and are very hard to eliminate.
However, an anti-TB drug regimen is available, which the patients usually
have to take for months. If left untreated, TB can destroy the lungs and
spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones and intestines.
20

Let’s Try This
Do you know anybody who has tuberculosis? How does he or she look? You can
go to a hospital and visit a patient with tuberculosis. Don’t stay too close because PTB
disease is communicable or easily transmitted. Think how lucky you are that you have
a respiratory system that functions very well.
Because of the many diseases that can affect the respiratory system, new
technological advances in the field of pulmonology (the study of the respiratory
system) have been developed. These advances help to develop better the understanding
of the structures of the respiratory system and the diseases that affect it.

Recent Advances in Pulmonology
New instruments are currently available for the study, diagnosis and treatment of
diseases and injuries that can affect the respiratory system. These technological
advances enable doctors to discover new and better ways of helping patients.
A very important technology developed to understand diseases is the X ray
machine, which can show pictures of the lungs and the ribcage. It is quite old but is
still very useful. Nowadays, doctors can use computed tomography scan or CT
scan. A CT scanner is a machine that functions like an X ray machine. However, a CT
scan gives a more detailed picture of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory
system. It passes small amounts of harmless radiation into the body to create images
of even non-bony structures, such as the lungs. An X ray, on the other hand, is like a
picture of the body. It is limited, however, because it is best used only for bony
structures that show up as white patterns on X-ray films.

*NOTE: show colorful picture with animated labels or animated figure/picture or any interactive related to this. NOTE: make the illustration similar to this sample **//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
A more sensitive machine is the MRI or magnetic resonance imaging
machine. Instead of passing radiation, it passes sound waves through the body.
Computers then create images out of these bouncing sound waves to show what the
inside of the body looks like. An MRI can detect tumors inside the lungs.
Nowadays, doctors can also pass tubes into the tracheobronchial tree to visualize
it. These tubes are called endoscopes and are used to assess the condition of the
passages of the respiratory system. Lung transplants are now also possible. Segments
of lungs are transferred from one person to another to replace damaged parts.
*NOTE: show colorful picture with animated labels or animated figure/picture or any interactive related to this.
NOTE: make the illustration similar to this sample **//www.guidant.com/heartvalves//** with audio
Drugs used for the treatment of respiratory system infections such as bronchitis,
pneumonia, laryngitis and tuberculosis are currently available. More powerful drugs
are being developed, and some of them are currently being used to help patients
recover.

People are, indeed, learning more and more about the respiratory system because
of these new technological developments. How about you, are you learning more about
your respiratory system, too? Breathe deeply before you proceed.

Let’s See What You Have Learned
*Use quizstar & have a back-up in case there's no internet connection
Write True on the line before each correct statement and False before each
incorrect statement.
_ 1. Pulmonology is the study of the lungs.
_ 2. Asthma is characterized by hypersensitivity of the lungs.
_ 3. Rhinitis and asthma are similar.
_ 4. Smoking is good for the body.
_ 5. Pneumonia is an infection of the nose.
_ 6. Smoking deposits are harmful substances in the alveoli.
_ 7. A CT scan makes detailed study of the lungs possible.
_ 8. Lung cancer is caused by smoking.
_ 9. Tuberculosis is easy to cure.
_ 10. PTB is common among people in developing countries.

Check your answers in the Answer Key on page 29. If your score is 8 and above,
congratulations! You have learned about the respiratory system well. You may proceed
to the next lesson. If your score is 6 or below, you need to review this lesson before
proceeding to the next page.


Let’s Remember
NOTE: while narrating each bullet show some presentation related
The respiratory system is prone to diseases that can affect its functions.

Coughing and difficulty in breathing are the primary symptoms of most
respiratory disorders.
♦ Some respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, laryngitis and
pharyngitis are infections. Antibiotics are available to fight bacteria and
viruses that cause infections.
♦ The diseases often associated with smoking are emphysema and lung cancer.
Diseases caused by allergic reactions include asthma and rhinitis.
♦ Recent technological advances in pulmonology are the CT scan and the MRI.
Aside from these, more sophisticated medical procedures such as
transplants and pulmonary endoscopy are now quite common. New drugs are
also being developed to cure respiratory disorders.
23

LESSON 4
NOTE: show a flashback presentation while narrating
Taking Care of the Respiratory System
In the previous lesson, you learned about some of the disorders that can affect
the human respiratory system. You also discovered some recent advances in
technology and treatment procedures that are used to correct the disorders of the
respiratory system.
In this lesson, you will learn how to take care of your respiratory system, a very
important system without which life would not exist. It is easy to take care of your
respiratory system. Observe the following practices to make sure that your
respiratory system remains healthy and functioning well.

*Refer to the module
*refer to the module -
show colorful picture or animated figure/picture or any interactive related to each of the following.
Avoid smoking
Eat fruits and vegetables that
contain substances that fight cancer.
Always wear protective equipments,
especially face masks when working in
an environment with a lot of dust or
smoke which can irritate the lungs.
Avoid people with cough or colds.
Bacteria and viruses can easily enter
your body and cause respiratory
infections.
Cover your nose when you sneeze.
Do not share personal items such as
handkerchiefs especially when you have
colds.
Maintain good hygiene to prevent
infections.
Take a vacation every now and then
to get fresh air into your body.
Keep your surroundings clean to
minimize dust that aggravates asthma.
Rest when you are tired.
Be sensitive to changes in your
body. Consult a doctor when you feel
something is wrong.



Let’s See What You Have Learned
*
Use quizstar or any similar program
Check the numbers that best illustrates the proper care for the respiratory
system.
1. taking a bath regularly to avoid infections
2. smoking
3. getting enough sleep and rest
4. consulting a doctor only when really needed
5. covering the mouth and nose when sneezing
6. wearing a mask in construction sites
7. avoiding dust and smoke
8. eating nutritious foods
9. relaxing when feeling stressed
10. cleaning the nose regularly and properly
NOTE: same as quizstar the answer key is viewed after the test if it is taken on-line
NOTE: If there is no internet connection, click the Answer Key and it will go to the page where it is.


After answering, compare your answers with those in the
Answer Key on page 30.
A score of 8 or higher means that you have learned the lesson well. If your score is 7
or lower, review the items you missed.

You have now reached the end of the module. Congratulations! Did you enjoy
studying this module? Did you learn a lot from it?
The following is a summary of the module’s main points to help you remember
them better.

Let’s Remember
Taking care of the respiratory system involves the observation of some very
simple habits.
*
While narrating the following, flash some picture related to each habits

– Avoid people with cough and colds. Do not share personal
items such as handkerchiefs. Cover your nose while
sneezing. Use a protective mask when working in
environments that have a lot of smoke and dust.
– Avoid smoking.
– Rest and avoid stress. Get fresh air every now and then.
– Eat nutritious foods, especially those rich in vitamin B.
– Consult a doctor if you notice something is wrong with your
body.
26

Let’s Sum Up
This module tells us that:
The respiratory system takes in air that contains oxygen needed to maintain life.
The respiratory system is composed of air passages that allow pulmonary
ventilation and gas exchange to occur.
– The nose warms, moistens and filters air before it enters the
phraynx.
– The epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea.
– The trachea is the “trunk’’ of the tracheobronchial tree. It
branches into the bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory
bronchioles and the alveolar sacs.
– The alveoli that make up the sacs are the site of gas
exchange or external respiration. Internal respiration and
cellular respiration take place afterwards.

What Have You Learned?
*
Refer to the module
*
copy format of (http://www.cleanairprogress.org/classroom/index.asp - Quiz-clean air challenge) or any similar program
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct word or words. Choose your answers from
the words in the box.

1. The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells is
called _.
2. The contain the alveoli needed for
gas exchange.
3. Smoking results in a condition called
.
4. The trunk of the tracheobronchial tree is the
_.
5. Breathing is technically called .
6.
is a technological advance used to
study the structure of the lungs.
7.
is a common disease caused by a
Mycobacterium.

8. The trachea is closed by the ___ during
swallowing.
Lungs Internal respiration Tuberculosis
Trachea Emphysema Olfaction
Valsalva Pulmonary ventilation
Epiglottis CT Scan
NOTE: same as quizstar the answer key is viewed after the test if it is taken on-line
NOTE: If there is no internet connection, click the Answer Key and it will go to the page where it is.



B. Label the parts of the respiratory system in the figure below.
*Refer to the illustration in the module and make it similar to the “Breathing & Respiration interactive simulation at www.skoool.ie

Compare your answers with those in the
Answer Key on page 30.
If your score is
0 – 5 You need to study the whole module again more carefully.
6 – 10 You should review the parts of the module you did not understand
very well.
11 – 14 Well done! Just review the items you missed.
15 – 18 Congratulations! You learned a lot from this module. You are now
ready for the next one.

Answer Key
A. Let’s See What You Already Know
(page 2)
1. Helps oxygen enter the body and carbon dioxide to come out
2. a. nose
b. trachea
c. phraynx
(other possible answers: bronchi, lungs, brochioles and alveoli)
3. a. pneumonia
b. lung cancer
c. rhinitis
(Other possible answers: tuberculosis, asthma, emphysema,
bronchitis, bronchiolitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis).
4. a. avoiding smoking
b. covering nose when sneezing
(Other possible answers: eating nutritious foods, observing proper
hygiene, wearing masks, undergoing regular medical checkups)

B. Lesson 1
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 5)
1. Oxygen
2. respiration
3. Carbon dioxide
4. exchange of gases
5. breathing or taking in air from the environment


C. Lesson 2
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 13)
1. Respiration
2. tracheobronchial tree
3. Oxygen
4. epiglottis
5. cartilage
6. vocal cords
7. alveoli
8. bronchi
9. bronchioles
10. external

D. Lesson 3
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 21)
1. True
2. True
3. True
4. False. Smoking increases the chances of developing emphysema and
lung cancer.
5. False. Pneumonia is an infection of the alveoli.
6. True
7. True
8. True
9. False. The
Mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis is quite resistant to
drugs.
10. True
30

E. Lesson 4
Let’s See What Have You Learned (page 25)
The following should be underlined.
1. taking a bath regularly to avoid infections
3. getting enough sleep and rest
5. covering the mouth and nose when sneezing
6. wearing a mask in construction sites
7. avoiding dust and smoke
8. eating nutritious foods
9. relaxing when feeling stressed
10. cleaning the nose regularly and properly

F. What Have You Learned
(pages 26–27)
A. 1. internal respiration
2. lungs
3. emphysema
4. trachea
5. pulmonary ventilation
6. CT Scan
7. Tuberculosis
8. epiglottis
B.
Epiglottis
Larynx
Pharynx
Trachea
Left primary
bronchus
Secondary
bronchus
Bronchiole
Terminal bronchiole
Alveoli
Alveolar duct
31
Glossary
NOTE: Copy the format of "illustrated glossary" in the http://www.guidant.com/glossary
NOTE: each bold format can be click to hear the right pronounciation like in the
**//http://www.guidant.com "Hear this Word"

Adam’s apple A prominent cartilage in the layrnx of males
Alveolar sacs Saclike structures where alveoli are found
Alveoli Site of gas exchange in the lungs
Asthma A disease that affects the respiratory system, characterized by wheezing
due to the constriction of hypersensitive airways
Bronchi The first pair of branches into which the trachea divides
Bronchioles Smaller branches of the bronchi
Carbon dioxide Waste product of respiration; exhaled gas
Carbon dioxide cycle Refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between plants and animals
CT scan Stands for computed tomography scan, a recent development in
diagnosing diseases of the respiratory system that uses radioactive waves
Cellular respiration The process of utilization of oxygen by the cells of the
body
Emphysema A disease characterized by a difficulty in breathing; usually
prevalent among smokers
Endoscopy A diagnostic technique, wherein a tube is passed down the structures
of the respiratory system for visualization
Epiglottis Protects the airway by closing during the act of swallowing; this
prevents food from entering the trachea.
External nares Nostrils
External respiration The process of taking in oxygen from the environment to
the respiratory system
Gas exchange The process of exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen or vice
versa
Internal respiration Happens in the alveoli where oxygen is exchanged for
carbon dioxide
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx
Larynx Voice box
Lungs A pair of spongy organs in the chest; main site of gas exchange in the
respiratory system
32
Lung cancer A disease common among smokers, characterized by the presence
and multipication of malignant growths in the lungs
Oral cavity Interior of the mouth
Pharynx The throat
Oxygen Gas needed by the cells to extract energy from food
MRI Stands for magnetic resonance imaging; a technological advance that uses
sound waves to visualize the respiratory system
Nasal cavity Interior of the nose where air first passes through
Pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx
Photosynthesis The process of food production by plants using radiant energy
from sunlight
Pneumonia Infection of the alveoli in the lungs
Pulmonary ventilation The medical term for breathing
Pulmonology The study of the respiratory system
Pulmonologist A medical doctor, who specializes in the diseases of the
respiratory system
Respiration The process of production and utilization of energy
Respiratory system A system of organs that functions for gas exchange
Trachea Also known as windpipe; the area below the pharynx where air passes
through
Tracheobronchial tree The part of the respiratory system composed of
branching structures from the trachea to the alveoli
Tuberculosis A lung infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; hard to
treat and common among people in crowded areas
Vibrissae Medical term for nose hair; trap larger particles to prevent them from
entering the airway
X ray A means for examining the lungs
33

References


*
Can be link to the internet
Campbell, N.
Biology. 4th ed. USA: The Benjamin and Cummings Publishing
Company, Inc., 1988.
Rischer, C. and T. Easton.
Focus on Human Biology. 2nd ed. Harper Collins
College Publishers, 1995
Van de Graaff, K. and Stuart I.F. Forx.
Concepts of Human Anatomy and
Physiology. 2nd ed. Iowa: WM Brown Publishers, Iowa, 1985.
Vellocott. Jane and S. Side.
Understanding Advanced Human Biology.// Hodden
and Stoughton, 1998.**